A placebo is defined as an inactive substance resembling a medication, given for psychological effect or as a control in evaluating a medicine believed to be active. However the placebo only fits this description under the restraints it has been given by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which refers to the placebo as an investigational new drug. In actuality, up until the present much of medicine was built on placebos. “Not very long ago, the rituals and symbols of healing constituted the bulk of the physicians armamentarium. In the early decades of the 20th century, most of the medication that doctors carried in their little black bags and kept in their office cabinets had little or no pharmacological value[…]

What is there to debate? Several sources repeatedly convey similar information on the care that a physical therapist provides. The Handbook of Physical Therapy, written by Robert Shestack, Current Physical Therapy, a book by Malcolm Peat, and “A Future in Physical Therapy,” an internet publication by The American Physical Therapy Association, have notably parallel information within them. However, small variations can be found in their writings. Physical therapy is defined as the treatment of patients’ disabilities from disease and injury to the loss of a body part with therapeutic exercise, heat, cold, water, light, electricity, ultrasound, or massage (Shestack 3). Through extensive direct contact with patients and other health care personnel, physical therapists have the opportunity to positively make a[…]

There are many important issues in the world regarding the environment and it’s affects on the average person. Though, the one that hits closest to home, worldwide, is the trust that individuals have in the food that they consume. Yet pesticides are still found daily in foods all around the world. Pesticides are toxins that are used by produce growers universally to control pests that can destroy crops. These toxins are being ingested by humans in the forms of fruits and vegetables that have remaining toxins on them. How safe are these toxins to humans and what is being done to safeguard the environment as well as the health of individuals? Does the average person consume harmful amounts of poison[…]

Freud, Piaget, Erikson, and Maslow are the last name of prominent psychologists. They have all gone to great lengths to develop their own unique theories. The theories that they have created, pertaining to personality, happen to be the four best-known theories of personality growth. Sigmund Freud developed the Psychoanalytic Approach. It centers on how instincts propel development. Freud Suggested a chain-reaction would occur if a child had a difficulty in a certain point in life. He identified five development stages from birth to the middle of adolescence. One who was influenced by Sigmund Freud was Jean Piaget. He focused on the stages of intellectual development in children. He found that the responses of children and the peers to questions on[…]

Pernicious anemia is a form of anemia caused by the lack of intrinsic factor , a substance needed in order to absorb the vitamin B12 from the intestines. Without this intrinsic factor there is a vitamin B12 deficiency. This deficiency then affects the bone marrows ability to create red blood cells. The main cause of this disorder is best linked to heredity. It mostly occurs in men over 50 from a Northern European decent. The main symptoms are weakness in arms and legs, sore tongue, nausea, apetite loss, bleeding gums, clumsiness, pale lips, yellow eyes and skin, shortness of breath, depression, confusion and dementia, headaches, and poor memory. Some of the things that might cause pernicious anemia are eating a[…]

The human use of scents, aromas and fragrances has its origins lost in ancient times. Why, when and how people first started to prepare them may never be known, but archeological findings, early written texts and oral tradition show that the history of aromas goes deep back in time. Early civilizations offered scent flowers, herbs and resins in worship of their Gods. When burned, some plants released stronger aromas and scented smoke fires became part of religious rituals, a mystical mean of communication between heaven and earth, a tradition followed by many religions until present day. When looking back into history, many agree that the Egyptians, during Queen Sheba’s rule, were the first to incorporate perfume into their culture. From[…]

The Primary Care Clinic located in Children’s Hospital is dedicated to the care of children. It is a place where children can be examined for routine physicals and sick visits. It is convenient because it is open until 9:00pm so children can be seen in the evening. This experience demonstrates that there are many differences in treatment of children and adults. T.T., a three year old male, was seen first. He was visiting the clinic due to a high temperature, 39.6oF(Jarvis,1996). Despite his fever, T.T. was very energetic. He was talking and playing. On observation enlarged tonsils, a strawberry tongue, and a rash on his torso were evident. He was diagnosed as having strep throat and scarlet fever. Expected findings[…]

For the purpose of confidentiality the name of the case study, has been changed (UKCC 1996) The aim of this essay was to select a client, the client in this case being a ten-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis, in a hospital setting. To assess the holistic needs of that client, using Beck, Williams and Rawlings “The five dimensions of self”, (Beck 1993) Josh has lived with cystic fibrosis for 7 years –People with CF suffer from chronic lung problems and digestive disorders. The lungs of people with Cystic Fibrosis become covered with sticky mucus, which is hard to remove and promotes infection by bacteria. Many people with CF require frequent hospitalisations and continuous use of antibiotics, enzyme supplements, and other[…]

Parkinson’s disease usually affects people of late middle age. Most run between the age of 50-60. The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are usually subtle and occur gradually. Some examples of symptoms a person may have, are feeling shaky or having trouble getting up from a chair or a couch. Others may notice that their speaking is softer or quieter. They will lose track of a thought or feel irritable or even depressed for no reason. These are early symptoms that may last a long time before the more classic and obvious symptoms appear. For now there is no way to cure or prevent Parkinson’s disease from happening., but there has been new research looking at (PET) Position Emission Topography. This[…]

Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by the lack of appropriate tumor markers and clinically, most patients fail to develop significant symptoms until they reach advanced stage disease. The characteristics of ovarian cancer have been studied in primary tumors and in established ovarian tumor cell lines which provide a reproducible source[…]